Communication Media or Transmission Media is the means through which information in the form of signals usually move from one network device to another. There are different types but they can be categorized into one of two categories:
- Guided Transmission Media (Cables)
- Unguided Transmission Media (Wireless)
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
This consists of two copper wires covered with a thin plastic coating twisted together. The twist in the wires act as a means of reducing electrical interference from the wires and radiation of radio frequencies. UTP is broken down into five categories:
Category 1 (CAT 1): – Voice Only (telephone wire)
Category 2 (CAT 2):- Data to 4Mbps
Category 3 (CAT 3):- Data to 10Mbps (Ethernet)
Category 4 (CAT 4):- Data to 20Mbps (16Mbps Token Ring)
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Similar to the UTP with the addition of a sheet of aluminium foil shielding each wire pair. The shield is grounded and prevents interference and signal radiation.
This cable consists of a central conductor surrounded by a shield. Coaxial cables are highly resistant to interference and are able to support wide bandwidths. This cable carries signals farther than 500m.
Optical Fibres use pulses of light, rather than pulses of electricity, to send data. It is made of glass or plastic fibres. It consists of a small fibre core encased in a thin, light absorbent plastic or glass jacket referred to as its cladding. The cladding is enclosed by a thick plastic or Teflon. Optical Fibre comes in many forms:
- Multi-mode Fibre (Step index) - light is introduced at several angles. At some angles, the light escapes and is absorbed by the cladding. At other angles it is reflected down the length of the fibre.
- Multi-mode Graded Index Fibre – uses a glass fibre in which the index of refraction varies. Instead of reflecting signals, multi-mode fibre bends the signal as they approach the cladding.
- Single Mode Fibre – the diameter of the core is reduced so that only one coherent light signal will be transmitted.
- Breakout Cable – has several fibres (often 4), each with its own cladding and its own jacket bound together with a larger jacket.
- Distribution Cable – Breakout cable with a larger jacket.
- Loose Cable – 1-12 fibres float inside a loose tube filled with get
Unguided/Wireless Transmission Media
Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. This type of communication is often called wireless communication. Signals are normally broadcast through free space and thus are available to anyone who has a device capable of receiving them.